Tampines Rovers suffered a shock 3-2 loss to Sheikh Jamal in the other Group E match, allowing Ceres to sit top of the standings with nine points and a place in the last 16.
Selangor now have eight points, just one ahead of Tampines, who are third on seven points.
Patrick Wleh's injury in the first half did little to help Selangor's cause. The current Malaysia Super League (MSL) leading scorer picked up a knock to his ribs early in the match and was replaced with young Adam Nor in the 20th minute.
His absence meant Selangor's attack was blunt without a striker making the runs up front.
"The draw is no blow because even if we won we would still need a result in Singapore in the final match," said Selangor coach Zainal Abidim Hassan.
"Yet I'm surprised we couldn't score tonight. There were many chances as a result of us dominating the midfield but perhaps, Wleh was irreplaceable up front. We did look a bit off in the final third without his presence.
"Our defence did their job to halt Ceres' counterattacks but you can't win things without being able to score," said Zainal.
The visitors had a penalty appeal turned down after Azmi Muslim brought down Patrick Alcala Reichelt when the right winger was making a run towards Norazlan Razali's goal in the 52nd minute.
Azrif Nasrulhaq thought he had scored the opening goal in the 73rd minute but he was ruled offside.
"It's a good result... especially considering Tampines lost tonight. It puts us through to the next round and now our goal is to make sure we finish top of the table. That way we'll have a home match in the round of 16," said Ceres' coach Frank Muescan.