Rafinha has expressed his delight at being named in the Brazil squad, while Carlos Alberto Parreira has explained the surprise decision.
The Bayern Munich full-back, who represented his country at Under-20 and Under-23 level, won his only senior international cap in 2008, but was included in the party for the friendly in South Africa on March 5.
"I’m very happy at being called up by the national team," the 28-year-old Rafinha wrote on Twitter. "I promise to honour the shirt like I always have! Thanks to everybody who always supported me."
Maicon had been the second right-back in the previous Brazil squad for the friendlies against Honduras and Chile in November, alongside first-choice Daniel Alves.
"(Scolari) made it clear that the basic idea was to observe at least three players in every position," Brazil technical director Carlos Alberto Parreira told SporTV News. "This is to combat the unforeseen (injuries) that happen each season.
"We had already utilised Daniel and Maicon a lot. We needed a third name."
Rafinha has established himself in the Bayern starting XI this season, aided by Pep Guardiola converting full-back Philipp Lahm into a midfielder.