Barton charged with violent conduct
The controversial player was sent off for elbowing Carlos Tevez and then kicked Sergio Aguero and tried to head-butt Vincent Kompany before being escorted off the pitch.
An FA statement said: "Following the player's dismissal in the 54th minute of the fixture, there followed two incidents involving Manchester City's Sergio Aguero and Vincent Kompany.
"As Barton had already been dismissed, both of these incidents fell outside of the jurisdiction of the referee."
Barton has until 17:00 GMT on Tuesday to respond to the charges.
Playing with 10 men, Rangers took a 2-1 lead only for City to clinch the title with two late goals in the most dramatic of finales to the Premier League.
Barton has apologised via his Twitter account, saying: "Can do nothing but apologise to the players and the fans.
"Still don't think its a sending-off. Tried to take one of their players with me...."