The man was killed while working on the construction of the Arena Amazonia in Manaus after falling from a height of around 35 metres.
He was taken to hospital but subsequently died of his injuries on Saturday morning.
The stadium is due to host four group-stage matches at the World Cup, including the high-profile Group D clash between England and Italy on June 14.
A statement from construction company Andrade Gutierrez read: "Andrade Gutierrez reports with regret that at around 4am today, 14/12/2013, the worker Marcleudo de Melo Ferreira, 22, a native of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, an employee of the subcontractor providing services in assembling the cover of Arena Amazon, suffered a fall from a height of about 35 metres, being rescued and taken to the emergency room still showing vital signs, where he succumbed to his injuries and passed away this morning.
"We reiterate commitment to the safety of all employees and that an internal investigation is being done into the causes of the accident. Legal measures are being taken in conjunction with the relevant authorities.
"We deeply regret the accident occurred and we are providing full assistance to the worker's family. In respect of this casualty, the works were interrupted this Saturday."
A statement from FIFA added: "FIFA and the Local Organising Committee (LOC) learnt of the death of the worker on Saturday at the Arena Amazonia site with great sadness.
"We would like to send our most sincere condolences to his family, relatives, colleagues and friends."
The accident comes less than three weeks after two workers were killed at another World Cup venue, the Arena de Sao Paulo, when a crane struck the roof of the stadium causing a partial collapse.
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