Neymar, 21, would have his surgery in Rio de Janeiro under the supervision of a member of Barca's medical staff and Alba, 24, would be operated on at a clinic in Terrassa near the Catalan capital, the club said on their website.
The two players appeared for Brazil and Spain respectively in Sunday's Confederations Cup final in Rio, which the host nation won 3-0.
"It's a problem that I have, my throat always bothers me, so we're going to operate to resolve it once and for all," Neymar said.
The two players should be back in action in time for Barca's pre-season friendly against Polish side Lechia Gdansk on July 20.
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