Robben has enjoyed huge success since arriving at Bayern from Real Madrid in 2009, claiming two league titles and scoring the winning goal in their 2-1 UEFA Champions League final success over Borussia Dortmund last season.
The Netherlands international's deal at the Allianz Arena was due to expire at the end of next season.
However, the 30-year-old has now committed his future to the Bavarians, and will spend at least three more seasons with Bayern.
And the former Chelsea man has set his sights on securing further silverware with the club in the coming years.
"I'm delighted we've now signed the new contract and I'll continue pursuing trophies with FC Bayern," Robben told the club's official website.
"I'm now in my fifth season in Munich and there will be three more after this.
"There can be no better indication of how happy my family and I feel to be here and how much I enjoy playing for this club and with this team.
"I'm looking forward to the years ahead – and to plenty more trophies with FC Bayern."
Pep Guardiola's side are unbeaten in the league this season and 23 points clear of second-placed Dortmund.
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