"It is alleged that Suarez used abusive and/or insulting words and/or behaviour towards Manchester United's Patrice Evra contrary to FA rules, the FA said in a statement on its website.
"It is further alleged that this included a reference to the ethnic origin and/or colour and/or race of Patrice Evra. The FA will issue no further comment at this time."
Liverpool issued a statement saying Suarez would plead not guilty to the charge and that they supported him fully.
"The club this afternoon received notification from the Football Association of their decision to charge Luis Suarez and will take time to properly review the documentation which has been sent to us," Liverpool said on their website.
"We will discuss the matter fully with him when he returns from international duty, but he will plead not guilty to the charge and we expect him to request a personal hearing," the statement added.
"Luis remains determined to clear his name of the allegation made against him by Patrice Evra."
The Suarez/Evra row is one of two high-profile racism incidents being investigated by the FA.
The Liverpool v United match was on October 15, the weekend before Chelsea and England captain John Terry is alleged to have racially insulted Queens Park Rangers defender Anton Ferdinand during a Premier League game at Loftus Road.
Terry, who is being investigated by both the FA and the police over the charge, was caught close-up on camera mouthing what appeared to be insults.
There is no TV footage of Suarez's alleged insults aimed at Frenchman Evra but the United player has said Suarez insulted him at least 10 times during the game.
Suarez has been quoted as saying he was only calling Evra what he heard his own team-mates calling him.
Manchester United reported the FA charge on their website, reiterating recent comments by their manager Sir Alex Ferguson that Evra was keen to press on with the matter.
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