Kashima, who lost their last league encounter 2-0 to Cerezo Osaka after slumping to 3-1 defeat to Tokyo in the J.League Cup, fell behind three minutes before the break when defender Yuzo Kurihara scored.
However, midfielder Shoma Doi levelled nine minutes into the second half for Kashima, who secured the points in the final 10 minutes with goals from Takuya Nozawa and Gaku Shibasaki.
Meanwhile, reigning champions Sanfrecce Hiroshima overcame winless newcomers Tokushima Vortis 3-1.
Tsukasa Shiotani, Naoki Ishihara and Gakuto Notsuda all found the net as Sanfrecce moved level on points with second-placed Cerezo, who were held to a 0-0 draw by Albirex Niigata.
Sagan Tosu avoided a third consecutive defeat by beating Gamba Osaka 2-0, while Tokyo picked up their first win of the campaign, a 3-1 success at Shimizu S-Pulse.
Pedro Junior scored a double as newly promoted Vissel Kobe stunned Urawa Reds 3-1, and Kosuke Kikuchi was the hero in Omiya Ardija's 2-2 draw at Kashiwa Reysol.
Kashiwa appeared to be on their way to a comfortable victory after Wataru Hashimoto and Masato Kudo found the net to seemingly put the hosts in command.
However, Kikuchi rescued a point for the visitors late on to extend Omiya's unbeaten run to three matches.
Elsewhere, Kawasaki Frontale edged Nagoya Grampus 1-0 on Friday and Vegalta Sendai played out a 1-1 draw with Ventforet Kofu.
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