The other players to miss out from the previous squad, which was Holger Osieck's last as Australia's national team coach, are Jackson Irvine, Nikita Rukavytsya and Brett Holman.
Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors defender Alex Wilkinson could earn his first senior cap, while Adelaide's Michael Zullo and Ivan Franjic of Brisbane Roar are the other fringe players to be included for the 2014 World Cup warm-up clash in Sydney on November 19.
Franjic, who won two titles under Postecoglou at Suncorp Stadium, has been in outstanding form for his club early in the 2013-14 season. His club team-mate Matt McKay and Melbourne Victory's Mark Milligan are the other A-League players selected.
There are only two goalkeepers, Borussia Dortmund's Mitch Langerak and Mat Ryan of Club Brugge, in the 22-player squad after veteran Mark Schwarzer, who had originally been selected, opted to call time on his international career.
Postecoglou said he intends to offer the players who helped the Socceroos book a ticket to the World Cup next year a chance to prove they still deserve a place in the national team set-up.
"The first task is to have a good look at the bulk of the players who played a significant part in qualifying Australia for the 2014 World Cup and also giving opportunities to players I think have the ability to improve the team," he said.
"I want to give every Australian player the best opportunity to stake a claim for Brazil and beyond."
Goalkeepers: Mitchell Langerak (Borussia Dortmund), Mat Ryan (Club Brugge KV)
Defenders: Jason Davidson (SC Heracles Almelo), Ryan McGowan (Shandong Luneng), Lucas Neill (Omiya Ardija), Rhys Williams (Middlesbrough FC), Alex Wilkinson (Jeonbuk Hyundai), Michael Zullo (Adelaide United)
Midfielders: Oliver Bozanic (FC Luzern), Mark Bresciano (Al Gharafa), Ivan Franjic (Brisbane Roar), James Holland (FK Austria Vienna), Mile Jedinak (Crystal Palace FC), Matthew McKay (Brisbane Roar), Mark Milligan (Melbourne Victory), Tom Rogic (Celtic FC), Dario Vidosic (FC Sion)
Forwards: Tim Cahill (New York Red Bulls), Josh Kennedy (Nagoya Grampus), Robbie Kruse (TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen), Mathew Leckie (FSV Frankfurt), Tommy Oar (FC Utrecht)
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