In Silva's absence, Neymar captained Brazil in wins over Argentina and Japan in October.
The Paris Saint-Germain centre-back was expected to be reinstated on his return but Dunga kept Neymar in the role in a squad named on Thursday.
In a news conference, Dunga said Silva would always remain a leader of the Brazil side.
"I don't think an ex-captain exists. A team captain, will always be a team captain. Because things in life change," he said.
"When I started here with the Brazil squad, the Brazilian Football Confederation president [Jose Maria] Marin - which will soon be Marco Polo - allowed me to be free to select players which we - as the technical commission - think are right.
"And we're here and in every moment, we have to re-evaluate. Thiago is coming back after a good amount of time, and we're going to talk like we talk to all of our players, with all the big players, with all the stars.
"We have to have the same respect for all of them."
Dunga's squad for matches against Turkey and Austria included no players from the Brazilian Serie A, despite several being selected for the matches in October.
The coach, who has overseen four wins in as many games in his second stint in charge, said it was an opportunity to test other players.
"Since Brazilian clubs, during the first four call ups, came and met with the Brazil squad, asking for their players," Dunga said.
"Now we're at the moment where the Brazil squad went back to meet with these clubs in order to make things work well.
"But, at the same time, it's going to give us the opportunity to look at other players within the Brazil squad and see who we want in the Brazil squad and to create a high competitive level within the squad for players who are there and for players who could come up in the future. So it's a unique opportunity.
"We would like to stay with the same base but at the same time it's a unique opportunity to give this chance to other players.
"And they are really going to give a lot of effort and dedication to help the Brazil squad maintain the same level or to even make it better since the last four games."
Brazil: Rafael Cabral (Napoli), Neto (Fiorentina), Diego Alves (Valencia), David Luiz (PSG), Marquinhos (PSG), Thiago Silva (PSG), Miranda (Atletico Madrid), Mario Fernandes (CSKA Moscow), Alex Sandro (Porto), Filipe Luís (Chelsea), Danilo (Porto), Luiz Gustavo (Wolfsburg), Romulo (Spartak Moscow), Fernandinho (Manchester City), Casemiro (Porto), Oscar (Chelsea), Firmino (Hoffenheim), Willian (Chelsea), Neymar (Barcelona), Philippe Coutinho (Liverpool), Lucas (PSG), Luiz Adriano (Shakhtar Donetsk), Douglas Costa (Shakhtar Donetsk).
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