Brazil's Superior Sports Justice Tribunal handed down the sanction - which also included a fine of 10,000 Brazilian reals - to the Atletico Mineiro man, who has scored nine goals in 22 appearances this season.
He will miss league fixtures with Palmeiras (13th), Figueirense (14th), Flamengo (10th) and Internacional (third).
Tardelli was sent off late in Atletico's 1-1 draw away at Bahia, which saw the hosts equalise late - with referee Elmo Alves Resende Cunha reporting the 29-year-old abused him to earn the dismissal, before following up with more words after the act.
The nine-time Brazil international has started in all four of his nation's matches since the World Cup, with new coach Dunga favouring him in the strike force - with Tardelli repaying the favour with a brace against Argentina in October.
Atletico sit outside the final Copa Libertadores spot on goal difference to Fluminense, and Tardelli will only be able to return for their final two Serie A matches against Coritiba and Botafogo - two sides in the relegation zone.
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