The deal was for three-and-a-half years, Lokomotiv said on their website.
The little-used Pavlyuchenko had struggled to adapt to English football since joining the North London club from Spartak Moscow for 17 million euros in August 2008.
While the transfer window in Russia is open until February 25, the 30-year-old striker will not be eligible to play for Lokomotiv in this season's Europa League matches after playing for Tottenham in the same competition last year.
The Russians face Spain's Athletic Bilbao in a Europa League last-32 tie this month.
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