"I came to Gabala to share my experience and help the club grow and achieve something great," the 45-year-old, who was appointed in May 2010 on a three-year contract, was quoted as saying by the club's press office.
"I've spent some interesting time here. I did what I could but unfortunately I had to leave the club for family reasons."
The club said Adams' Turkish assistant, Fatih Kavlak, has been appointed caretaker coach until the end of the year.
Gabala, founded six years ago in a small town about 200km north of Baku, are sixth in the 12-team league midway through the season which ends in May.
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