The 31-year-old France international will be operated on at a clinic in the Catalan capital on Friday, the club said on their website.
They gave no further details and asked that the player's privacy be respected.
It was unclear how long Abidal would be out of action. His absence for any length of time would be a severe blow to the La Liga leaders given his superb form this season and their relatively limited squad.
The athletic Abidal normally plays at left-back but has filled in brilliantly in central defence when regulars Carles Puyol and Gerard Pique have been absent this season.
Get the best features, fun and footballing frolics straight to your inbox every week.
Thank you for signing up to Four Four Two. You will receive a verification email shortly.
There was a problem. Please refresh the page and try again.