The 32-year-old Italy international, who has not featured since November, reported for pre-season training with the Serie A club, but was sent to see a specialist in Germany last week after experiencing more discomfort.
Roma revealed on Saturday that Balzaretti had undergone an operation and is set for another spell on the sidelines.
"The player has already begun post-operative rehabilitation sessions in Trigoria that will involve physical therapy and, starting next week, athletic work," Roma said in a statement on their official website.
The former Palermo man made only 11 appearances for Rudi Garcia's side last season as they secured second spot behind Juventus.
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