The 54-year-old, who stepped down from the club's board of directors in February, was found guilty of five charges on Friday at a court in Hong Kong.
"The sentence must include an element of deterrence to discourage those who are in a position to exploit the system," said judge Douglas Yau in passing the sentence in quotes reported by the BBC.
"The law will come down on them with full force.
"Maintaining the integrity of the banking system is of paramount importance if Hong Kong is to remain an international finance centre."
Yeung was president of the club, director of Birmingham City plc and director and chairman of the club's parent company, Birmingham International Holdings Ltd (BIHL), until he resigned from his roles to concentrate on the court case last month.
However, Yeung remains the majority shareholder of Birmingham.
Earlier this week, Birmingham's acting chairman Peter Pannu stated that the guilty verdict against Yeung would "have no impact on the day-to-day operations at the football club".
A spokesperson for Birmingham stated on Friday: "The club has no further comment to give on this matter."
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