The Serb only took charge of the struggling outfit in October after Albert Ferrer was sacked, but he was unable to turn their fortunes around.
Djukic won three matches during his short tenure – including two in a row in early 2015 – but since mid-January they have been in free fall.
Eight successive league defeats leaves them rooted to the foot of the table, and Djukic's replacement Jose Antonio Romero faces an uphill challenge in cutting the deficit to safety.
"Cordoba have dismissed first team coach Miroslav Djukic," a statement read. "The role of the Serbian coach has immediately been filled, on an interim basis, by coach Jose Antonio Romero, who will lead the training from next Wednesday.
"Cordoba thanks Miroslav Djukic for his work, effort and dedication during his time at the club and wish you luck in your future career."
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