Enke set for Germany starting spot
"We have decided for Robert because he has shown great form in the past few weeks and we trust him," Loew told reporters in Leipzig ahead of Saturday's Group Four match against Liechtenstein.
Werder Bremen keeper Tim Wiese will be on the bench.
Bayer Leverkusen's Rene Adler, who is still recovering from a minor elbow injury, will undergo a test on Saturday morning to determine whether he can be fit for the Wales match in Cardiff on April 1.
All three keepers have a combined total of nine caps, with no-one laying claim to be first-choice since the departure of Jens Lehmann following the Euro 2008 tournament.
Adler played against Norway in February and against England in November while Enke's most recent of four caps was Germany's 3-3 draw in Finland in September.
While Adler was initially seen as the frontrunner for the position, his dip in form for Leverkusen since the winter break may have contributed to Loew's decision.
Loew said injured midfielder Piotr Trochowski will not play against Liechtenstein but could be ready in time for the Wales match. Leverkusen striker Stefan Kiessling is also doubtful for Saturday's match.
Midfielder Torsten Frings, striker Miroslav Klose and defender Arne Friedrich have already dropped out of the squad due to injuries.
Germany are top of their group on 10 points from four matches with Russia four points behind with a game in hand.
"Whatever the situation with the squad is, our aim is clear and we want six points from these two matches," Loew said.