After Manolo Gabbiadini had pulled a goal back to make it 3-2 to Serie A leaders Juventus, Pogba struck a fierce, dipping effort past Angelo Da Costa to wrap up the points.
Despite his stunning effort, Conte felt Pogba came up short of his maximum and called on spectators to look at the wider picture when judging his form.
"Pogba could've done a lot better. I'm not joking," he told Sky Sport Italia.
"I've certainly seen better performances from Paul. At times the goal fogs the vision of the whole game, but I get angry as people forget everything around it."
The victory maintained Juve's eight-point lead in Serie A after Roma had closed it to five with their 3-0 win over Livorno earlier on Saturday.
With Juve well on track for their third consecutive title, Conte thinks his side are now more adept at grinding out wins against tough opponents such as Sampdoria - the last side to win in the league at the Juventus Stadium.
"I try to keep the utmost concentration in my players to the 90th minute and we saw it was hard to kill the game off," he added.
"In my view, that's what has made the difference over the last two and a half years. We did well to hold Sampdoria off and break away when we had the chance.
"I have lost titles when eight points clear with seven rounds to go and I've also won them with comebacks, so I know it's never over until it's over. It's better to be cautious rather than be left with egg on your face."
Get the best features, fun and footballing frolics straight to your inbox every week.
Thank you for signing up to Four Four Two. You will receive a verification email shortly.
There was a problem. Please refresh the page and try again.