The 33-year-old Brazilian's previous deal at the Stadio Olimpico was set to expire at the end of this season.
However, the former Inter and Manchester City man put pen to paper on a new contract on Monday, which will keep him in the Italian capital until June 2016 and includes the option of a further season.
A statement published on Roma's official website read: "AS Roma is pleased to announce that Maicon Douglas Sisenando has signed a contract extension with the club.
"His new deal will run until June 30, 2016 and includes an option for a further season."
Speaking about the deal, Maicon said: "I'm proud to go on wearing these colours for many years to come.
"It's a great honour and now it's down to me to perform."
Maicon has been rejuvenated by his return to Serie A, making 28 top-flight appearances last term as Roma finished second.
But despite his strong start to this season, the 33-year-old has seemingly come to the end of his international career.
Maicon was axed from Brazil's squad for an "internal problem" ahead of last month's friendly against Ecuador and was omitted from coach Dunga's party for their games against Argentina and Japan in the current international break.
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