The world champions trailed after goals to James Troisi and Mile Jedinak cancelled out Marco Reus' opener.
But Podolski denied the Australians a second straight win over Joachim Low's men, slamming home with his left boot from Andre Schurrle's centred ball in the 81st minute.
Podolski's loan spell at Inter finishes at season's end but there is uncertainty around whether he will return to parent club Arsenal after a dry spell.
The 29-year-old has started eight times for the Serie A club but is yet to produce a goal, however, Podolski was quick to downplay his late equaliser for his country.
"One should not exaggerate over 15 minutes now," the second-half substitute said of his cameo.
"In recent months it went the other way and now after 10 or 20 minutes it's back in that direction.
"I'm here, want to play well and train well, so the coach sees, he can rely on me and trust me in the future.
"Everything else is not a concern right now.
"The game against Georgia is important, and that we get the three points.
"If we do not win, it does not look dramatic, but not good, so the focus is now on Georgia."
Germany will travel to Tbilsi for their European Championship Group D qualifier on Sunday, sitting second in the group on seven points behind leaders Poland (10).
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