The 22-year-old caught Can with his elbow during the first half of Swansea's 4-1 Premier League loss at Anfield on Monday, when the pair were jostling for the ball inside Liverpool's penalty area.
Swansea manager Garry Monk stated that he did not think former Liverpool man Shelvey should be punished, claiming the incident was unintentional.
However, the Football Association (FA) charged Shelvey on Tuesday, and he has until Wednesday to respond.
"Swansea City's Jonjo Shelvey has on Tuesday been charged by The FA for violent conduct, following an incident in his side's fixture with Liverpool," read a statement from the FA.
"The incident, which was not seen by the match officials but caught on video, occurred during the fixture between the two sides at Anfield on Monday 29 December 2014.
"Shelvey has until 6pm on Wednesday 31 December 2014 to respond to the charge."
Monday's incident came just days after Monk urged Shelvey to "wise up" following what he felt was a series of needless bookings this season.
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