Frustrated supporters lit fires in the stadium after Fenerbahce failed to secure the title, following a 1-1 draw with Trabzonspor on Sunday, a Reuters witness said.
Police fired water cannon to disperse a large crowd of Fenerbahce fans who gathered outside the Sukru stadium, television pictures showed.
TV reported that many people were injured and detained by police, though no precise details were available.
Fenerbahce had entered the final day with a one point lead over Bursaspor and a win at home would have guaranteed them the title. A draw against Trabzonspor would also have been enough provided Bursaspor were held or beaten by Besiktas.
Amid scenes of confusion, Fenerbahce fans started celebrating at the end of the match after erroneous reports filtered into the stadium that Besiktas had equalised in Bursa.
But once news of Bursa's 2-1 triumph emerged, Fenerbahce fans' anger boiled over and they clashed with police.
In northwestern Turkey, there were joyous scene of celebrations as Bursa fans streamed into the streets to hail their team's surprise run to the title.
A goal from Pablo Batalla and an own goal from Ibrahim Toraman sealed the win 2-1 win over last year's champions Besiktas and handed them the title with 75 points, one more than Fenerbahce.
At the final whistle, Bursaspor fans streamed down from the stands, holding aloft flags and scarves.
Thank you for reading 5 articles this month* Join now for unlimited access
Enjoy your first month for just £1 / $1 / €1
*Read 5 free articles per month without a subscription
Join now for unlimited access
Try first month for just £1 / $1 / €1
Get the best features, fun and footballing frolics straight to your inbox every week.
Thank you for signing up to Four Four Two. You will receive a verification email shortly.
There was a problem. Please refresh the page and try again.