Huth sustained a knee ligament injury against Sunderland last November and subsequently missed the rest of the 2013-14 campaign before returning in the League Cup against Portsmouth in August.
The German central defender is yet to feature in the top-flight this term, but was likely to get another taste of first-team action in Wednesday's League Cup tie with Southampton at the Britannia Stadium.
However, he is now awaiting scan results after reporting pain during a training session.
Speaking at a news conference, Stoke assistant Mark Bowen said: "We've had a problem with Robert Huth.
"He trained yesterday [Monday] and had a problem with his calf and has gone for a scan. It might put him out for a couple of weeks.
"He's been patient waiting for his chance and it might have been a chance for him to go in [against Southampton].
"But now he's got a pretty bad calf problem. If it is a significant injury, it's come at a bad time for him."
Phil Bardsley is expected to be available for Stoke, despite suffering from a sore back following Saturday's 1-0 Premier League defeat at Southampton.
"He's been a bit stiff and sore but being the warrior he is he's put himself forward for selection," Bowen added.
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