Having made his way through the prestigious youth system at the Eredvisie champions Van Rhijn was handed his first-team debut in September 2011.
The full-back has gone to cement a starting place with Frank de Boer's side and has made 107 appearances in all competitions.
With just a year left on his previous deal, Newcastle United had been credited with an interest in the 23-year-old, but he is now toed to the Amsterdam Arena until 2018.
Van Rhijn told the club's official website: "For a while it hung in the air, but it was clear that we wanted to extend.
"It's fine because now it is officially confirmed. This contract extension is a sign of quite a lot of confidence in me."
Van Rhijn has played a big role in the last three of Ajax's four consecutive Eredivisie title-winning campaigns.
His club form has earned him seven international caps with Netherlands, with his debut coming against neighbours Belgium in 2012.
Get the best features, fun and footballing frolics straight to your inbox every week.
Thank you for signing up to Four Four Two. You will receive a verification email shortly.
There was a problem. Please refresh the page and try again.