Colombia had not lost to a team other than Brazil since September 2013, but Jozy Altidore's early penalty looked to have sent Jurgen Klinsmann's side on their way to what would have been an impressive victory at Craven Cottage.
However, second-half efforts from Carlos Bacca and Gutierrez wrapped up a third straight win for the South Americans, having applied plenty of pressure after the break.
Altidore's 25th international goal from the spot put USA in front after just 10 minutes, before Colombia were denied what they felt should have been a penalty of their own just before the break, when Bacca’s effort looked to strike Jermaine Jones’ hand.
However the Sevilla man would eventually net the equaliser, bursting into the area and latching onto James Rodriguez's pass, before Gutierrez headed home three minutes from time to seal the win.
It will give Jose Pekerman's side an added boost ahead of Tuesday's friendly with Slovenia, while Klinsmann's USA must turn their attentions to next week's clash with Republic of Ireland.
Colombia made much of the early running, but it was USA captain Altidore who opened the scoring against the run of play.
Pablo Armero was adjudged to have handled inside the area, despite appearing to be pushed by debutant Rubio Rubin, with the Sunderland striker subsequently tucking past goalkeeper Camilo Vargas.
Rodriguez flashed a free-kick wide of Guzan's left-hand post after 20 minutes, with Bacca next to threaten as Colombia went in search of an equaliser.
And Colombia should have levelled shortly after the half-hour mark when Bacca struck the post from Gutierrez's cutback, although Pekerman's side almost found themselves two down when Rubin glanced a header wide of goal.
Bacca and a number of team-mates saw penalty appeals waved away when his goalbound effort appeared to be blocked by Jones' hand just prior to the interval, as USA clung on to lead at the break.
However, the pressure eventually told when Bacca rounded Guzan and slotted home the equaliser, despite shades of suspicion surrounding the goal.
While the offside Gutierrez did not touch Rodriguez's through-ball - instead leaving it for Bacca - a number of the USA defenders unsuccessfully appealed that the River Plate striker was active.
Guzan was kept busy as Colombian pressure for a winner mounted - Bacca and Juan Cuadrado both going close with long-range strikes - and Pekerman's side eventually got their reward.
The persistent Edwin Cardona clipped in a cross for Gutierrez to nod home and complete the comeback, as USA were left to rue Bobby Wood's one-on-one that had been well saved by Vargas minutes earlier.
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