The former Liverpool stars were scathing in their assessment of Chelsea's performance as they were eliminated from the UEFA Champions League in a 2-2 draw with Paris Saint-Germain on Wednesday.
Carragher was critical of the way Mourinho's men surrounded the referee prior to Zlatan Ibrahimovic's 31st-minute dismissal for a foul on Oscar, while Souness described the attitude of some players as "pathetic".
The comments were met with an angry reaction by Mourinho at a news conference on Friday.
After accusing the pair of having a short-term memory, Mourinho alleged that he knew "a lot" about Souness from his time at Benfica, where the Scot managed shortly before the Chelsea boss took over in 2000.
"Obviously I have a certain kind of education, not just in football, but in life," he said as he looked to take the moral high ground.
Mourinho then produced a line that could sit alongside Eric Cantona's famous 'seagulls' quote in the footballing annals: "I prefer to laugh and to say that envy is the biggest tribute that the shadows do to the man."
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