The 44-year-old watched his side lose 4-0 at home to Bournemouth on the opening day of the Championship campaign, and his 18-month stint in charge has now been brought to an end.
Huddersfield have claimed only six league wins in 2014 and Saturday's defeat drew boos from sections of the club's supporters.
Robins himself described the performance against Bournemouth as an "absolute disgrace", revealing he felt "let down" by his players.
Although he vowed to fight on, a statement from Huddersfield on Sunday confirmed his exit.
It read: "Following yesterday's first day defeat, Mark met with the board of directors. At the conclusion of the meeting, Mark and the directors all agreed it would be in the interests of all parties to part company.
"Accordingly, Mark's contract has ended amicably and by mutual consent."
Club chairman Dean Hoyle thanked Robins for his efforts, adding: "Mark has put his all into the job and has made a big contribution to the club.
"He arrived at the club at a difficult time [in February 2013] and immediately impacted to keep us in the Championship.
"Mark's approach to this has been refreshing. He has always put the club before himself and worked tirelessly on the training ground to change our way of playing and we have seen that come to fruition.
"Mark will be someone that I personally, and we as a club, will always remain in contact with."
Robins' assistant Steve Thompson will assume temporary charge of the team along with Steve Eyre until a replacement can be found.
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