The men from Turin fell behind to Mauricio Pinilla's strike after 21 minutes - only the second goal Antonio Conte's men have conceded in 11 league games - but a Fernando Llorente brace turned the game on its head before Claudio Marchisio's long-range effort and a tap-in from the impressive Stephan Lichtsteiner.
Cagliari goalscorer Pinilla was then dismissed for dissent late on.
The win keeps defending champions Juve eight points clear of Roma at the summit and sees them surpass a marker set in 1932 for consecutive victories in Serie A.
"It's an extraordinary achievement, the fact in the history of Juventus - knowing the teams they had - never managed this before is amazing," coach Conte told Sky Sport Italia.
At the Stadio Olimpico, second-placed Roma were in cruise control in a 4-0 victory over Genoa.
Alessandro Florenzi, Francesco Totti and Maicon all netted in the space of 18 first-half minutes, before Mehdi Benatia completed the rout eight minutes into the second period.
Genoa's misery was compounded five minutes later when Matuzalem was dismissed for a second bookable offence.
The convincing nature of the win will have been welcomed by coach Rudi Garcia, who saw his side's unbeaten run in the league this season come to an end with a 3-0 defeat to Juve last weekend.
Napoli, meanwhile, maintained their pressure on the top two by winning 3-0 at Verona to go six unbeaten in the Italian top flight.
Dries Mertens netted midway through the first half to give Napoli the lead at the break before Lorenzo Insigne and Blerim Dzemaili got their names on the scoresheet in the 72nd and 76th minutes respectively.
In Sunday's late kick-off, Milan saw a two-goal lead slip through their fingers as they fell to a shock 4-3 defeat at the hands of Sassuolo, who climbed out of the Serie A relegation zone.
Goals from Robinho and Mario Balotelli inside the opening 13 minutes might have had Sassuolo fans worried, but Domenico Berardi then stole the show with a four-goal haul to heap more pressure on Milan head coach Massimiliano Allegri and end a four-match losing run in the league.
Riccardo Montolivo scored Milan's third four minutes from time, but it proved a mere consolation as Milan were drawn to within six points of the drop zone.
Elsewhere, Torino and Fiorentina played out a goalless draw, while Atalanta triumphed 2-1 over basement club Catania.
Get the best features, fun and footballing frolics straight to your inbox every week.
Thank you for signing up to Four Four Two. You will receive a verification email shortly.
There was a problem. Please refresh the page and try again.