The defender was taking part in a session ahead of Juve's Serie A fixture at home to Sassuolo on Monday.
Leaders Juve have yet to disclose how much action the Uruguayan will miss, with the Turin club set to give an update after he has gone under the knife.
A statement on Juve's official website read: "Martin Caceres is to undergo surgery after fracturing the malleolus bone in his left ankle during [Sunday's] training session.
"The defender will be operated on tomorrow, with a prognosis on his recovery time to be established afterwards.
"The operation will be carried out by Dr. Flavio Quaglia at Turin's Fornaca Clinic."
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