Benito Floro's side have plummeted down the FIFA rankings to 110th after a terrible stretch of form that has seen them fail to win any of their last 15 games.
They did at least break one unwanted record in front of a sparse crowd in Austria, though, as Atiba Hutchinson's goal was the nation's first in 11 matches.
Bulgaria entered the match as favourites and took the lead in the 19th minute through Andrey Galabinov.
The Avellino forward showed good strength to hold off the challenge of Canada's Adam Straith and produced a composed finish to open the scoring.
But Canada hit back just eight minutes later through Hutchinson from the penalty spot.
Svetoslav Dyakov conceded the spot-kick after accidentally kicking Tosaint Ricketts in the face when trying to clear.
Hutchinson tucked away the chance with ease but neither side could force a winner.
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