The Bastia defender was a surprise inclusion in Claude Le Roy's provisional 26-man party for the tournament in Equatorial Guinea.
However, Maboulou is said to have failed to show for a pre-tournament camp in Senegal and has been omitted from the squad.
Midfielders Scott Bitsindou and Jordan Massengo also miss out as Congo look to impress in a tournament they won back in 1972.
Congo last competed in the AFCON finals in 2000, when they finished bottom of Group D without scoring a goal.
Le Roy's men face Equatorial Guinea in the opening game of the competition in Bata a week on Saturday.
Squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Christoffer Mafoumbi (Le Pontet), Chansel Massa (AC Leopards), Pavhel Ndzila (Etoile du Congo).
Defenders: Marvin Baudry (Amiens), Dimitri Bissiki (AC Leopards), Arnold Bouka Moutou (Angers), Atoni Mavoungou (CNFF), Boris Moubio (AC Leopards), Francis Nganga (Charleroi), Igor Nganga (FC Aarau)
Midfielders: Sagesse Babele (AC Leopards), Hardy Binguila (Diables Noirs), Cesaire Gandze (AC Leopards), Chris Malonga (Lausanne), Delvin Ndinga (Olympiacos), Prince Oniangue (Reims)
Forwards: Thievy Bifouma (Almeria), Fode Dore (Cluj), Ladislas Douniama (Guingamp), Sylvere Ganvoula (Raja Casablanca), Franci Litsingi (Teplice), Dominique Malonga (Hibernian), Fabrice Ondama (Wydad Casablanca).
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