A resilient defensive performance frustrated the hosts and earned a second clean sheet in as many games for O'Neill's men since he took charge earlier this month.
Ireland beat Latvia 3-0 on Friday night in O'Neill's first game at the helm, but he knew this would be a much sterner test.
And the former Sunderland boss was encouraged by the way his players stood up to the challenge.
O'Neill said: "It was not the best game for the fans to watch, but overall I'm satisfied. First of all, because in the second meeting, we kept a clean sheet.
"The pitch was not the best today, but there is nothing to explain. The pitch was the same for both teams.
"To draw away with such a demanding team as Poland is a really good result that will help us build some confidence."
O'Neill and his assistant Roy Keane have plenty of time to plan for their next game against Serbia on March 5.
Get the best features, fun and footballing frolics straight to your inbox every week.
Thank you for signing up to Four Four Two. You will receive a verification email shortly.
There was a problem. Please refresh the page and try again.