Southampton striker Rickie Lambert, who scored with his first touch in international football against Scotland at Wembley, retains his place for the crunch clashes at the national stadium on September 6 and in Kiev on September 10.
Spurs speedster Townsend has impressed in his last two club games against Dinamo Tbilisi and Swansea City, scoring against the former in a Europa League play-off before winning the penalty which defeated the Swans on Sunday.
Toffees talent Barkley has also started the Premier League season in fine form, thundering home from 20 yards at Norwich City on the opening weekend.
Liverpool youngster Raheem Sterling is included in Roy Hodgson's party, as is Daniel Sturridge - the Reds' match-winner in their first two league games.
The Three Lions currently trail Montenegro by two points in their quest to reach the 2014 finals in Brazil, but have one game in hand on their rivals.
Squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Joe Hart (Manchester City), John Ruddy (Norwich City), Fraser Forster (Celtic).
Defenders: Leighton Baines (Everton), Gary Cahill (Chelsea), Phil Jagielka (Everton), Ashley Cole (Chelsea), Glen Johnson (Liverpool), Phil Jones (Manchester United), Chris Smalling (Manchester United), Kyle Walker (Tottenham Hotspur).
Midfielders: Ross Barkley (Everton), Michael Carrick (Manchester United), Tom Cleverley (Manchester United), Jack Wilshere (Arsenal), Steven Gerrard (Liverpool), Frank Lampard (Chelsea), James Milner (Manchester City), Raheem Sterling (Liverpool), Andros Townsend (Tottenham Hotspur), Theo Walcott (Arsenal), Ashley Young (Manchester United).
Forwards: Jermain Defoe (Tottenham Hotspur), Rickie Lambert (Southampton), Wayne Rooney (Manchester United), Daniel Sturridge (Liverpool), Danny Welbeck (Manchester United).