The Borussia Dortmund goalkeeper has been rewarded for a series of fine performances in the Bundesliga and UEFA Champions League, with Jurgen Klopp's men occupying second spot in the German top flight.
Weidenfeller will compete alongside regular number one Manuel Neuer and Rene Adler for a place in manager Joachim Low's staring XI when Germany hit the road for friendly fixtures against Italy and England this month.
"Manuel Neuer is currently our number one and we know what we have with Rene Adler or the younger Ron-Robert Zieler or Marc-Andre ter Stegen," Low said.
"We have watched Roman Weidenfeller closely and noted his strong performances in the league and in the Champions League. We are delighted to have him and get to know him more."
Veteran striker Miroslav Klose returns to the squad after missing the FIFA World Cup qualifying fixtures versus Republic of Ireland and Sweden in October with a foot injury.
Bayern Munich are well represented, with Jerome Boateng, Philipp Lahm, Toni Kroos, Thomas Muller and Mario Gotze all named in the 24-man squad alongside Neuer.
But fellow Bayern star Bastian Schweinsteiger misses out after it was announced he would undergo surgery on his ankle.
Dortmund players also feature heavily, with Marco Reus in particular looking to stake a claim in the starting XI.
Arsenal duo Mesut Ozil and Per Mertesacker are both included, and will look to carry their domestic form onto the international stage, with Arsene Wenger's men topping the Premier League.
Germany take on Italy in Milan on November 15, before a showdown with England at Wembley four days later.
Low will use the friendly encounters to check on the progress of his squad ahead of next year's World Cup in Brazil, and may decide to rotate his charges.
Squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Rene Adler (Hamburg), Manuel Neuer (Bayern Munich), Roman Weidenfeller (Borussia Dortmund).
Defenders: Jerome Boateng (Bayern Munich), Benedikt Howedes (Schalke), Mats Hummels (Borussia Dortmund), Marcell Jansen (Hamburg), Philipp Lahm (Bayern Munich), Per Mertesacker (Arsenal), Marcel Schmelzer (Borussia Dortmund), Heiko Westermann (Hamburg).
Midfielders: Lars Bender (Bayer Leverkusen), Sven Bender (Borussia Dortmund), Julian Draxler (Schalke), Mario Gotze (Bayern Munich), Sami Khedira (Real Madrid), Toni Kroos (Bayern Munich), Thomas Muller (Bayern Munich), Mesut Ozil (Arsenal), Marco Reus, Borussia Dortmund), Sidney Sam (Bayer Leverkusen), Andre Schurrle (Chelsea).
Forwards: Miroslav Klose (Lazio), Max Kruse (Borussia Monchengladbach).
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