Belounis, 33, and his family were left stranded in Qatar after he was denied an exit visa under the Arab state's labour laws.
Under Qatar's kafala system, migrant workers must have the approval of their employers to leave.
Belounis, who was allowed to leave as players' union FIFPro were due to visit to resolve the matter, said he was angry at FIFA president Sepp Blatter for not coming to his aid.
He intends to sue Military Sport Association president Gamaan Al-Hamad and Al Jaish president Sheikh Joaan bin Hamad Al-Thani.
"It should be understood that I am mad at all those people watching this case from afar and were able to help me. I am mad at them terribly – at Blatter and others. Yes, I am mad at them," he said.
"I cannot defend them. The first thing I was thinking about when I was there was to get out my family out of there.
"I was thinking, when Blatter came to Qatar, that at least he could have met me. Well, he didn't.
"There were more important things than Zahir Belounis. You can imagine I'm collateral damage that does not count. And for that, I am mad, of course."
Belounis said he would never forgive the clubs and denied he was a hero for bringing the issue to light.
"I'm not a hero. I do not seek fame. I denounce a system that is terrible," he said.
"They have hurt me. They have hurt my two daughters and my wife. And for that, I could not forgive them."
Get the best features, fun and footballing frolics straight to your inbox every week.
Thank you for signing up to Four Four Two. You will receive a verification email shortly.
There was a problem. Please refresh the page and try again.