The defender suffered the injury during the 1-0 win over South Korea in Sao Paulo on Thursday and had to be carried from the field.
That result secured Belgium's place as winners of Group H, having won all three of their matches heading into the knockout stages.
It came at a cost, however, as Vanden Borre is set to miss the rest of the tournament, with Marc Wilmots' men taking on the United States in the second round in Salvador on Tuesday.
"(There is a) crack in (the) fibula (of) @AvdBorre," Wilmots posted on his official Twitter account on Friday.
"Anthony will no longer be able to play at the World Cup but remains with the team."
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