The charge is thought to relate to a response from Cole to a tweet he received in the aftermath of West Ham's 2-2 draw against Tottenham last month, in which Sam Allardyce's side surrendered a two-goal lead.
The post, which was later deleted, was deemed to have fallen foul of FA rules and the governing body has subsequently decided to act on the matter.
"West Ham United's Carlton Cole has been charged by The FA in relation to a comment posted on social media," a statement from the organisation read.
"It is alleged that the comment was abusive and/or insulting and/or improper and/or brings the game into disrepute.
"The player has until 6pm on 5 March 2015 to respond to the charge."
It is not the first time Cole has been punished for a comment made on social media.
The forward was fined £20,000 in May 2011 after a post on Twitter that he made during an England friendly against Ghana.
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