Keshi named a 30-strong squad early in May that included surprise recalls for previously out-of-favour pair Joseph Yobo and Peter Odemwingie.
Both have retained their places and will make the trip to Brazil, where John Obi Mikel will appear at his first World Cup, having missed the finals four years ago through injury.
However, among the seven players removed from the squad is Sunday Mba - the scorer of the winning goal in the final of Nigeria's Africa Cup of Nations triumph last year.
Lokomotiv Moscow forward Victor Obinna and Inter midfielder Joel Obi also miss out, along with goalkeeper Daniel Akpeyi.
Nosa Igiebor, Ejike Uzoenyi and Nnamdi Oduamadi are the others to be left out of the travelling party.
Nigeria will line up in Group F in Brazil alongside Argentina, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Iran.
Squad in full:
Goalkeepers: Chigozie Agbim (Gombe United), Augustine Ejide (Hapoel Be'er Sheva), Vincent Enyeama (Lille).
Defenders: Efe Ambrose (Celtic), Elderson Echiejile (Monaco), Azubuike Egwuekwe (Warri Wolves), Godfrey Oboabona (Rizespor), Kunle Odunlami (Sunshine Stars), Kenneth Omeruo (Middlesbrough), Juwon Oshaniwa (Ashdod FC), Joseph Yobo (Norwich City).
Midfielders: Ramon Azeez (Almeria), Mikel Obi (Chelsea), Ogenyi Onazi (Lazio), Gabriel Reuben (Beveren), Michael Uchebo (Cercle Brugge)
Forwards: Shola Ameobi (Newcastle United), Emmanuel Emenike (Fenerbahce), Babatunde Michel (Volyn), Victor Moses (Liverpool), Ahmed Musa (CSKA Moscow), Uche Nwofor (Herenveen), Peter Odemwingie (Stoke City)
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