Tolunay Kafkas' side beat Rizespor 3-0 to climb out of the relegation zone and followed that up by securing another three points from an action-packed encounter on Sunday.
Valentin Viola put Karabukspor in front 21 minutes in, but Cedric Bakambu equalised and Fernandao put Bursaspor in front in first-half stoppage time.
Karabukspor were back on level terms courtesy of a Viola penalty 11 minutes after the break and the visitors were a man down when they had Samil Cinaz sent off for a second bookable offence 13 minutes from time.
They looked to have done enough to secure a point, but Abdou Razack Traore came off the bench to score the winner two minutes into time added on.
And the drama did not end there, as Josue Pesqueira's dismissal left Bursaspor with nine men before Karabukspor defender Larrys Mabiala also saw red.
Besiktas maintained their one-point lead over Galatasaray at the top of the table after edging a 1-0 victory at Gaziantepspor on Sunday to stretch their winning run to five games in all competitions.
Oguzhan Ozyakup scored the only goal of the game in the second half and there was no way back for the home side, as the leaders chalked up a fourth clean sheet in a row.
Galatasaray responded to their 4-1 home defeat at the hands of Arsenal in the UEFA Champions League by hammering Konyaspor away on Saturday.
Burak Yilmaz scored twice to take his tally to five goals in his last three league games, while Umut Bulut, Emre Colak and Hamit Altıntop were also on target in a resounding victory.
Third-placed Fenerbahce had gone top of the table by beating struggling Sivasspor 4-1 at home on Friday, with Moussa Sow scoring twice.
Sefa Yilmaz scored twice as Trabzonspur extended Rizespor's run of defeats to five courtesy of a 3-2 victory on Monday, ensuring the hosts moved up to fifth spot.
Istanbul Basaksehir occupy fourth as a result of a 1-0 win over bottom-of-the-table Balikesirspor on Saturday, while Kasimpasa came out on top by the same score at home to Eskisehirspor.
Akhisar Belediyespor drew 1-1 with Genclerbirligi on Saturday and it was the same outcome in Sunday's clash between Mersin Idmanyurdu and Kayseri Erciyesspor.
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