The Italian giants saw their hopes of reaching the knockout stages dashed on matchday six at Galatasaray 12 months ago, but there was to be no repeat on this occasion despite a toothless performance in attack from the Serie A champions.
Massimiliano Allegri's men controlled the Turin clash, but struggled to convert their possession into decent attempts on goal, often restricted to long-range efforts.
Goalkeeper Miguel Angel Moya was also in good form for already-qualified Atletico when required, as he kept his fifth clean sheet in a row in this season's competition.
The Spanish champions - despite being second best for long periods - created the game's best chance in the sixth minute, but Koke, through on goal, was denied by veteran goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon.
The stalemate meant that Juve finished second in Group A with 10 points - one more than Olympiacos, who beat Malmo 4-2. Atleti topped the pool with 13 points from six matches.
Juventus, who knew they would seal qualification with a win or draw, regardless of other results, received an early scare when Buffon charged off his line to deny Koke.
It was an excellent Atletico move involving several one-touch passes that led to Koke's chance, but Buffon was equal to the task.
The visitors - not employing their regular high-pressing game - were comfortable to let Juve have the ball, and as a result, they dominated the first half, with Stephan Lichtsteiner starring down the right.
Paul Pogba also impressed, but for all of Juve's domination, they created few meaningful chances.
Fernando Llorente twice forced saves from Moya, while Diego Godin did well to block a Carlos Tevez strike, but their lack of cutting edge was causing headaches for Allegri.
And Atleti offered a reminder of their threat on a rare foray forward two minutes before half-time, when Buffon produced a diving save to keep out Mario Suarez's curling effort.
An Arda Turan corner almost crept in five minutes after play resumed, but Juventus were again in control, with Arturo Vidal's 25-yard effort forcing a fine save from Moya.
Pogba was next to try his luck from distance and his shot was spilled by Moya, meaning Atletico had to desperately clear with Tevez lurking.
The home fans' joy at Malmo's initial equaliser to make it 1-1 against Olympiacos - in which a draw would have seen Juve qualify, even with defeat - was short-lived as the Greek giants quickly restored their lead.
That put the pressure back on Juve, who were struggling to find a way through a packed Atletico defence.
Vidal shot at Moya on a counter-attack 16 minutes from time, while Pogba also fizzed an effort wide, but there was to be no late drama - in stark contrast to Olympiacos' exciting win.
But it mattered little for Juve, who did enough to book their spot in the next round.
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