Samuel, who suffered a knee injury in 2007, made his last international appearance in a 3-0 friendly defeat by Brazil in 2006.
There were no other major surprises in Maradona's second squad since taking over in November. Argentina beat Scotland 1-0 in his first match in charge.
Barcelona forward Lionel Messi was included after his Spanish club agreed to release him for the game in Marseille on February 11.
Messi missed the Scotland match in return for Barcelona agreeing to let him take part in the Beijing Olympics in August.
Maradona again overlooked midfielder Esteban Cambiasso, who was a regular under his predecessor Alfio Basile, while Luis Gonzalez, who rarely figured under Basile, was also named in the squad.
There was no place for striker Mauro Zarate who has looked impressive with Italian Serie A club Napoli this season.
The Argentina Football Association said Maradona would add home-based players to his squad at a later date.
Argentina's first competitive game under Maradona will be a World Cup qualifier at home to Venezuela in March.
Goalkeepers: Juan Pablo Carrizo (Lazio), Sergio Romero (AZ Alkmaar)
Defenders: Javier Zanetti (Inter Milan), Martin Demichelis (Bayern Munich), Gabriel Heinze (Real Madrid), Daniel Diaz (Getafe), Nicolas Burdisso (Inter Milan), Walter Samuel (Inter Milan)
Midfielders: Javier Mascherano (Liverpool), Fernando Gago (Real Madrid), Maxi Rodriguez (Atletico Madrid), Jonas Gutierrez (Newcastle United), Luis Gonzalez (Porto)
Forwards: Lionel Messi (Barcelona), Sergio Aguero (Atletico Madrid), Carlos Tevez (Manchester United), Ezequiel Lavezzi (Napoli), Lisandro Lopez (Porto), German Denis (Napoli), Ángel Di Maria (Benfica)
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