Bayern Munich defender Badstuber made his first international appearance for two-and-a-half years in a 2-2 friendly draw with Australia on Wednesday, but was withdrawn at half-time.
Germany assistant coach Thomas Schneider on Friday revealed that the 26-year-old will not travel to Tbilisi for Sunday's Group D encounter at the Boris Paichadze Erovnuli Stadion due to what was described as "muscular problems".
Schneider stressed that Badstuber's omission was precautionary, while Bellarabi - who also started against Australia - is ruled out as the Bayer Leverkusen striker is suffering from a cold.
Joachim Low will take a 21-man squad to Georgia, as the world champions attempt to keep the pressure on Group D leaders Poland.
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