Louis van Gaal's men controlled proceedings for much of Wednesday's Premier League match at St James' Park, although Newcastle should have had an early penalty when Chris Smalling clumsily tripped Emmanuel Riviere.
Taylor, though, waved play on, leaving Carver thoroughly unimpressed, especially after Ashley Young pounced on a huge error by Tim Krul in the 89th minute to score the winner.
"It was a penalty," he insisted to BBC Sport. "Mr Taylor has a decision to make. At the time I thought it was and usually your gut instinct is right.
"I'm devastated, I'm annoyed. I needed five to 10 minutes to calm down.
"Our guys gave every inch. But when you play Man United you have to concentrate for every minute and we didn't.
"I think we had the best chances and you have to put one of those away. You just wonder if they will hit you on the sucker punch and they did.
"I'm devastated for our guys. The goal at the end the way it came, young [Mehdi] Abeid has learned a harsh lesson, he is learning the game."
Jonas Gutierrez made his long-awaited return from testicular cancer against United, coming on as a 65th-minute substitute for his first competitive outing since April 2014.
But the fixture is likely to remain in the spotlight due to a more unsavoury incident that saw Jonny Evans and Papiss Cisse appearing to spit at each other.
Carver was not shy when relaying his disgust, as he added: "You can't do it, can you? It's one of the worst things in football. I can't comment on it, I just know there was a fracas on the halfway line."
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