Walter Mazzarri's side ended a run of three Serie A fixtures without a win when they triumphed 4-2 on Saturday.
But the match ended in controversial circumstances when Belfodil and Verona's Vangelis Moras were sent off after full-time for an off-the-ball altercation.
Inter have now lodged an appeal against that decision to the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), while Verona have also announced their intention to challenge the punishment against Moras.
A statement on Inter's official website read: "FC Internazionale has appealed the two-match ban issued to Ishak Belfodil by the FIGC's disciplinary committee following Inter v Hellas Verona."
The 21-year-old will miss Inter's clash away at Atalanta later on Tuesday.
Mazzarri's men have amassed 18 points from their nine games in Serie A so far, and are fourth in the table.
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