The Liverpool defender, who turns 34 next month, converted a crucial penalty as Herve Renard's defeated Ghana 9-8 in a thrilling shootout in last Sunday's final.
Toure revealed in December that he planned to retire after the African showpiece and has now confirmed that he has played his last game for Ivory Coast, having amassed over 100 caps for his country.
"It is with great emotion that I inform you that it is time to say goodbye," Toure told TV channel RTI.
"My goal was to win the Africa Cup of Nations and I must admit that it was a very difficult decision to make.
"I do love my country and especially love football, but at some point, there comes a time to stop."
Toure made his international debut in 2000 and represented Ivory Coast at two World Cups.
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