The France international played in Barca's 1-0 loss at home to Celta Vigo on Saturday.
However, Barca confirmed the 31-year-old is set for a short spell on the sidelines.
Mathieu will definitely miss Wednesday's UEFA Champions League clash at Ajax as well as Saturday's La Liga clash at Almeria.
He is also unlikely to be involved for France in their friendlies with Albania and Sweden later this month.
"Jeremy Mathieu will miss the next few Barcelona games after picking up an injury in his right calf, which will see him side-lined for two or three weeks," a statement on Barcelona's official website read.
"After starting last night against Celta, the defender is definitely out of the trips to Ajax and Almeria this week, and this probably means he will not be taking any part in the internationals for France the week after.
"Barca return to action on November 22 against Sevilla at Camp Nou, by which time there is a chance that Mathieu will be available for selection again."
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