Taylor sustained a calf injury in the 2-0 League Cup victory at Burnley on Tuesday night and boss Sam Allardyce has revealed the midfielder will play no part against Villa on Saturday.
Tomkins also picked up an injury at Turf Moor, but is expected to be in contention to face Paul Lambert's side.
"From Tuesday Matt Taylor's definitely out; James Tomkins should be ok. The rest of the injured players won't be available which leaves us short of first-team squad players." said Allardyce.
West Ham have not won at home in the Premier League since recording a 2-0 triumph over Cardiff on the opening day of the season.
However, their recent results on the road have been encouraging, particularly a 3-0 win at Tottenham, and Allardyce believes the tide will soon turn.
He added: "We have to continue playing as we've been playing - (against) Swansea (where they drew 0-0), Tottenham away and even the home games when the results haven't gone our way.
"Goals have been hard to come by but we've got to be as resilient as we are away, come off with none conceded and I'm sure we would score a goal at home.
"Lots of teams are finding it tougher to secure points at home and it shows that tactically teams are going away and being strong.
"All that matters is winning football matches and getting points on the board in this league. Everybody said we've got to improve our away form. We've done that but now we've got to get our home form back to where it was last season.
"The players are bound to feel that little more anxious at home now but they've got to remember the good performances from before.
"We've got the worst chance conversion rate of anyone in the Premier League and that's the thing we've got to change."
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