Roma ended the match with just nine men after Daniele De Rossi and Leandro Castan were dismissed in the closing stages, as Juve made it 10 straight league victories by ending their Scudetto rivals' 19-match unbeaten run.
Arturo Vidal found the breakthrough with Juve's first meaningful attack after 17 minutes at the Juventus Stadium, squeezing his effort past Morgan De Sanctis from a tight angle.
Juve then doubled their lead shortly after the break when Leonardo Bonucci slid in to side-foot home from Andrea Pirlo's superb whipped delivery.
Roma's chances of an unlikely comeback were dashed when De Rossi and Castan were sent off in the 75th and 76th minutes, with the former receiving his marching orders for a late tackle on Giorgio Chiellini and the latter being dismissed for handball on the goalline.
Ex-Roma striker Mirko Vucinic rubbed salt in the visitors' wounds by converting the resulting penalty, as Antonio Conte's men took an eight-point lead over Roma at the top of the standings.
Elsewhere, Fiorentina moved level with third-placed Napoli courtesy of a narrow 1-0 triumph over relegation-threatened Livorno at Stadio Artemio Franchi.
Gonzalo Rodriguez broke the deadlock after 66 minutes, much to the relief of the home faithful.
Vincenzo Montella's side were dealt a blow with just under 20 minutes remaining, however, as Giuseppe Rossi was withdrawn from the action following a tackle with Leandro Rinaudo.
The club later confirmed that Serie A's top scorer was set for a spell on the sidelines with a knee injury, with further tests due on Monday to ascertain the severity of the problem.
In Sunday's other fixture, Chievo and Cagliari played out a 0-0 draw at Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi.
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