England's World Cup rejects: a brief history of woe and where-are-they-nows
1950: Too cool for the old school
Len Shackleton wasn’t a shy man. His autobiography The Clown Prince of Soccer included a chapter called The Average Director’s Knowledge of Football, which was a blank page. He had moved from Newcastle to Sunderland for a British record £20,050 after falling out with the board (“I’ve no bias against Newcastle – I don’t care who beats them”). Even at the Mackems, the inside-forward would deliberately put spin on passes to centre-forward Trevor Ford to make the Welshman look foolish.
When pedantic England boss Walter Winterbottom was explaining an unopposed dry-run training session – “I want all you five forwards to run down the field, interpassing the ball, until you come to the goal, where there'll be no goalkeeper. Then put the ball into the net" – the Yorkshireman enquired from his position lying on the ground: "Which side of the net, Mr Winterbottom?"
No wonder England’s crusty board of selectors didn’t like him, one declaring: “We play at Wembley, not the London Palladium.” He was on the original 28-man longlist for England’s first World Cup, in 1950, but was one of the seven who didn’t travel to Brazil. Others included the magnificently-named Sheffield Wednesday forward Redfern Froggatt.
1954: Too soon, too soon
By 1954, FIFA had ruled that World Cup competitors must name a 40-man provisional squad which would then be cut to 22, a method which remained until the mid-80s. England’s first such longlist included the Manchester United ingenue Duncan Edwards. During the year after he'd broken the top-flight record for youngest debutant (at 16 years and 185 days), Edwards became a regular in the rejuvenated Red Devils side which came to be known as the Busby Babes – even if the titular tactician didn’t like the epithet, which he felt undervalued the team’s older players.
In the event, Edwards was a still a little too green and off the pace when the selectors watched him at Highbury, so missed the cut. He made his full debut a year later, became a regular and was tipped to replace Billy Wright as captain, but tragically he never got the chance to play at a World Cup, losing his life after the Munich disaster in early 1958.
Among other players cut from the final 1954 squad were Ron Greenwood, the Chelsea centre-half who would manage England for five years including the 1982 World Cup. His clubmate Roy Bentley was also cut, but within a year had become the only Chelsea captain to lift the league championship before the Abramovich era.
1958: Lofty ambitions thwarted
In the immediate postwar years, England weren’t short of dangerous forwards. Newcastle’s Jackie Milburn scored 10 in 13 caps, Wolves’s Dennis Wilshaw 10 in 12, Middlesbrough’s Wilf Mannion 11 in 26, Manchester United’s Tommy Taylor 16 in 19, and Blackpool’s Stan Mortensen 23 in 25. But the most prolific of them all was Nat Lofthouse.
In 1956, the Bolton centre-forward had finally overhauled the Edwardian-era Vivian Woodward to become England’s record goalscorer, coming on as sub to score his 28th and 29th goals on his 31st cap. After captaining his hometown club to victory in the 1958 FA Cup Final, Lofthouse was duly called up for the 40-man squad – but excised before the trip to Sweden. He scored his 30th and final goal that October, holding the record until Bobby Charlton overtook him in 1963.
Lofty wasn’t the only forward cut loose. Munich survivor Dennis Viollet wasn’t required, and neither was a cocky Second Division goal machine called Brian Clough. Meanwhile, West Brom’s Ronnie Allen became the first man to be cut from two England longlists.
1962: If not this time...
There are many ways to react to a knockback, but easily the best is to double down and get better. Shortly after his 21st birthday, uncapped Leicester goalkeeper Gordon Banks was called up to Walter Winterbottom’s 40-man squad for the Chile World Cup. At one point that season, keen to impress, he’d attended an England-Portugal friendly as a non-playing squad member before racing up to Leicester in time for a Cup Winners’ Cup game against Atletico Madrid.
Such enthusiasm wasn’t rewarded in the final 22 for Chile. Banks was initially named as a stay-at-home reserve, but was switched out at the last minute after a pre-tournament warm-up featured an impressive debut from a 21-year-old; some kid called Bobby Moore.
Among the others cut from the 22 were Manchester United full-back Shay Brennan, who then opted to play for the Republic of Ireland instead; Terry Paine, the Southampton winger who would win caps before Alf Ramsey discovered a new formation and went on to represent Saints a startling 808 times; and Tony Kay, a Sheffield Wednesday left-half who switched to Everton for a British record £60,000 that December – but not before betting on the Owls to lose a match, a conspiracy to defraud which earned him four months’ imprisonment. Told you there were different ways to react to adversity.
1966: I don’t want to coach you, Chelsea
Determined to come good on his promise of winning the World Cup on home soil, Alf Ramsey named his 40-man longlist two months early; the better to prepare players and their clubs. Of the 40 players, 13 came from two clubs, Liverpool (with seven) and Chelsea (six), the Stamford Bridge posse outnumbering their London rivals West Ham two-to-one.
Assembled by Tommy Docherty and augmented by Dave Sexton, the young Chelsea team was maturing nicely – top-five finishers for three successive seasons, repeating FA Cup semi-finalists, 1965 League Cup winners and 1966 Fairs Cup semi-finalists. But Ramsey cut skilful striker Peter Osgood (19), scheming midfielder Terry Venables (23), versatile forward Barry Bridges (25), bustling midfielder John Hollins (19) and stalwart defender Marvin Hinton (26).
Ramsey even called up future Chelsea record-holder Bobby Tambling (24) before also rejecting him, leaving back-up goalkeeper Peter Bonetti (24) as the Blues’ sole representative, watching on as West Ham trio Bobby Moore, Geoff Hurst and Martin Peters helped England to glory. Perhaps there’s an alternative universe in which Chelsea won the World Cup...
1970: The ins and outs of a defence
Worried by logistics for the trip to Mexico, Ramsey named a 28-man provisional squad almost laughably early on March 25. He also named a further dozen standby players who were given full medicals and inoculations in case of emergency call-up: these reserves, none used, included Everton’s Joe Royle and Colin Harvey plus Sunderland’s 1973 hero-in-waiting goalkeeper Jim Montgomery.
Among the six snipped from the squad just before the kick-off and sent home from Mexico were Peter Shilton, Brian Kidd and Liverpool winger Peter Thompson – the latter setting an unwanted record by being cut at the last moment for the third successive tournament.
Leeds utility man Paul Madeley was widely tipped to be named but wasn’t in the initial 40; when club-mate Paul Reaney was stretchered off in a league match, Alf Ramsey called up Madeley, who said he’d already made family plans for the summer and refused to go to Mexico. Ramsey therefore turned to Arsenal’s Bob McNab… then cut him from the squad as one of the six sent home.
1982: Ron manager rings the changes
Cutting players from provisional World Cup squads wasn’t an issue for England in 1974 and 1978: all Englishman were excluded because the Three Lions twice failed to reach the finals. By 1982 the decision fell to Ron Greenwood, an unassuming Lancastrian-turned-Londoner so polite that when faced with the tough goalkeeping choice between Peter Shilton and Ray Clemence, he opted to alternate them.
That’s not to say Greenwood wouldn’t make big decisions. He frequently refused to select Glenn Hoddle despite public pressure, and in 1978 made Viv Anderson England’s first non-white international: “Yellow, purple or black – if they’re good enough, I’ll pick them.”
Indeed, Anderson went to Spain 1982, and he might have been joined by Cyrille Regis had the powerful forward not torn a hamstring. Among others in Greenwood’s 40-man provisional squad were Spurs forward and future media polymath Garth Crooks, plus Manchester United’s South Africa-born blond goalkeeper Gary Bailey.
NEXT: Smashing up Hoddle's office...